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      Introduction

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      The national government’s decision to invest in the sponge city concept happened relatively quickly, but the groundwork for that transformation leads back to 1997, when Kongjian Yu and his team began focusing their efforts on studying urban water systems (Kongjian Yu,Ye Zheng,1998). They used the concept of a sponge to describe the flood-control capacity of natural systems, pointing out that “the natural wetlands along rivers can function like sponges to retain water during flooding and recharge water during drought” (Kongjian Yu, Dihua Li, 2003). In 2001, Yu and his colleagues proposed "Ten Strategies for Urban Ecological Infrastructure Construction,” which was an early, systematic discussion of ecological stormwater management (Kongjian Yu, Dihua Li, Luomeng Chao, 2001). These strategies emphasize constructing urban ecological infrastructure to safeguard ecosystem services, and two of the strategies were directly related to urban ecological stormwater management, i.e. maintaining and restoring the natural forms of rivers and coasts, and protecting and restoring wetland systems. The article criticized the prevailing phenomenon of river channelization, and the widespread destruction of urban and rural wetlands by urban construction. It emphasized the necessity of providing comprehensive ecosystem services to cities by maintaining and improving river and wetland systems. The principal strategies include clean water provision, drought and flood control, groundwater recharge, diverse habitat preservation, and recreational opportunity provision and aesthetic enrichment for urban residents. In 2004, these ten strategies were incorporated into the Ministry of Construction’s Technical Policy Outline for Construction (Kongjian Yu, Dihua Li, 2004). The ecological infrastructure approach to tackling urban and rural water problems has been applied to the national ecological security pattern planning, the regional ecological planning of Beijing, Taizhou, Weihai, Heze and Dongying, in eastern China, and the ecological planning and design of nearly 200 other cities throughout the country (Kongjian Yu, et al., 2005; Kongjian Yu, Lei Zhang, 2007; Kongjian Yu, Xuesong Xi, Sisi Wang, 2008; Kongjian Yu, Sisi Wang, Dihua Li, et al., 2010; Kongjian Yu, Sisi Wang, Qing Qiao, 2010; Kongjian Yu, Yuan Zhang, Yunqian Liu, 2012; Lin Mo, Kongjian Yu, 2012; Yun Song, Kongjian Yu, 2007). And in the years since, a series of influential urban "sponges" or sponge city demonstration projects have been featured in international publications, as well as winning international awards; Suining(Kongjian Yu,2011), Qian'an (Kongjian Yu,2010), and Xixian New Area(Kongjian Yu,2013), among the first batch of pilot cities for sponge city construction, have applied the sponge city construction theory and technology in their planning and river improvement projects.


      A series of earlier projects have also contributed to the exploration and refinement of sponge city construction approaches. The first was Beijing Zhongguancun Life Science Park, built in 2000. It introduced a green space system called "earth-life cells," which utilize constructed wetlands to collect rainwater and purify reclaimed water (Kongjian Yu, Dong Zhang, 2001; Kongjian Yu, Dihua Li, Yafan Meng, 2001).


      The second was Zhongshan Shipyard Park near Guangzhou, constructed in 2001, which created a resilient waterfront with trestle. (Kongjian Yu, Haibo Hu, Jianhong Li, 2002). During 2002 and 2003, as part of the ecological restoration of the Yongning River in Taizhou, on the eastern coast, concrete embankments were replaced with flood-friendly and flood-adaptive ecological riverbanks and wild grass revetments, which also restored habitats for wild animals and plants (Kongjian Yu, Yujie Liu, Dongyun Liu, 2005; Graham Johnstone, Xiangfeng Kong, 2007). In the design project for the Jianzhu University campus in Shenyang, in northeast China, rice fields were introduced, which can be irrigated by rainwater collected on the campus (Kongjian Yu, Yi Han, Xiaoye Han, 2005; Paisajismo, 2007). Also in 2005, in the phase II design of Qinhuangdao Tanghe Park, a “red ribbon” (500-meter long bench) helped transform the neglected and overgrown floodplain into a popular urban park, using a minimum intervention strategy, rather than traditional concrete embankments. The park contributes to not only maintaining a whole riverfront ecological system, but also creating a modern urban public space (Kongjian Yu, Chen Chen, Jing Niu, 2007;Antje Stokman, Stefanie Ruff, 2008). From 2005 to 2006, a campus reconstruction project at the University of International Relations in Beijing emphasized ecological stormwater management theory and techniques, and permeable ecological design was employed around buildings, along road sides, and in the plaza and parking lots of the campus (Kongjian Yu, 2005). In the same period, the eastern park of the Central Party School of the Chinese Communist Party in Beijing was redesigned following green sponge and ecological stormwater management principles. Existing concrete banks were replaced with waterfront habitats and a large area of permeable activity space. Another example is the Qiaoyuan Park in Tianjin City, built in 2007. Simple cut and fill help create a bubble-shaped ecological sponge system that can collect stormwater, thereby mitigating urban flooding and simultaneously remediating contaminated soil (Kongjian Yu, Chun Shi, Hangjian Wen, 2006; Yu, 2010; Kongjian Yu,2010). Similar sponge city projects include coastal ecological restoration in Qinhuangdao City and Harbin Qunli National Wetland Park (Kongjian Yu, Shihong Ling, Xiangjun Liu, 2009; Yu, 2011; Kongjian Yu, 2011; Kongjian Yu, Topos, 2011; https://www.asla.org/2012awards/026.html). From 2015-2017, Yu and his team conducted large-scale sponge city construction and "ecological restoration and urban renovation" projects in Sanya and Haikou cities, on Hainan, presenting an integrated application of the team’s knowledge and experience accumulated over the preceding 20 years(https://www.asla.org/2020awards/178.html; Yu, K., Urban Solutions, 2020). The lessons gained from these projects were widely disseminated by MOHURD throughout the country. In 2018, the completion of an ecological restoration project at the Kaban Lakes in Kazan, Russia, added to the growing visibility of Yu and his team's design philosophy in the wider world(https://worldarchitecture.org). Turenscape’s projects have also been recognized with a dozen awards from the American Society of Landscape Architects, as well as five World Architecture Festival world landscape awards.


      With the increasing frequency of urban floods, the sponge city concept and related planning concepts and approaches have become more widely recognized. In many important conferences and media interviews, Yu has called calls for "making the whole country a 'green sponge system,' so that rainwater can be stored and utilized locally, forming a water ecological infrastructure for natural protection with parks and wetlands in the city." He also made planning and construction suggestions for cities such as Beijing, Xiamen, and Chongqing (Wei Liu, Outlook Newsweek, 2012; Jingwen Liao, Guangzhou Daily; Yue Lu, xiamen.com, 2013; Lujie Tan, Jing Yi, 2013; Lijuan Wang, 2013), and suggestions for leaders at various levels (Kongjian Yu, 2012).


      In recent years, the concepts of ecological runoff control and stormwater management have gradually gained recognition within academia and industry, and sponge city theories and methods have been increasingly applied to planning and design practice (Su Yijing, Wang Sisi, Che Wu, et al., 2014; Wang Yuncai, Cui Ying, Peng Zhenwei, 2013). For example, Dong Shuqiu et al. proposed adopting an "ecological sponge city" planning concept, including "ecological drainage and pipe network drainage" strategies, in the reconstruction plan for Shougang Industrial Zone in Beijing, with an eye to solving rainwater utilization problems (Dong Shuqiu, Han Zhigang, 2011). The Taiwan water resources administration also proposed building a sponge city based on Low-Impact Development (LID) technology in its recent comprehensive watershed management plan.


      ? Beijing Zhongguancun Life Science Park’s green sponge system, designed in 2000, introduces the concept of “living cells,” green spaces that can collect and purify stormwater and reclaimed water (Kongjian Yu, Dong Zhang, et al., 2001)


      ? Built in 2007, Tianjin’s Qiaoyuan Park is an urban sponge system designed to collect rainwater for ecological restoration of brownfield (Yu, 2010)


      ? Coastal ecological sponge system built in 2007: Qinhuangdao coastal ecological restoration (Kongjian Yu, Shihong Ling, Xiangjun Liu, 2009)


      A catastrophic rainstorm that hit Beijing in 2012 killed 79 people. Media coverage and public outcry led decision makers to take the sponge city concept much more seriously—and ultimately make it a matter of national policy. The emphasis on the sponge city in official policy represents a recognition of its real-world effectiveness, and is opening important new opportunities to tackle water problems and other ecological and environmental challenges in Chinese cities of all sizes. It provides a systematic approach to stormwater management, ecological flood control, water purification, groundwater recharge, brownfield restoration, biological habitat construction, green space construction and urban microclimate regulation.


      This special topic will trace the development and evolution of the sponge city concept in China in more detail. While focusing on the research, design work and on-the-ground implementation by Kongjian Yu and his team at Turenscape, it is intended to spur discussion about similarly inspired efforts elsewhere—and about the sponge city concept more broadly.

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      • By 2030, 80% of the built-up urban areas in China will be able to absorb and utilize 70% of the local rainfall.

      Yu proposes the concepts of ecological stormwater management and ecological water control in 2001, and offers 10 strategies to implement his "negative planning" approach and create ecological infrastructure. He also researches the landscape of the Jiangnan Water Network. Publications: “On the Negative Planning Concept and Ecological Infrastructure,” Proceedings of the 22nd Session of the 2002 Annual Conference of the China Association for Science and Technology, 2002: 26-37 ; “Ten Landscape Strategies to Build Ecological Infrastructure,” Planner, 2001(6):9-13; “Pattern Analysis and Ecological Planning of Canal Network Landscape in Jiangnan — Taking Yangzhong City, Jiangsu Province as an Example.” 2001 Academic Annual Conference of China Association for Science and Technology: 668.

      Between 2005 to 2007, a number of "sponge campus" projects are completed, including Shenyang Jianzhu University's “rice field” campus, which absorbs rainwater to create a paddy field wetland. Projects like the East Campus of the Chinese Communist Party’s Central Party School and the Beijing Institute of International Relations utilize the concepts and technologies of ecological stormwater management. Publications: “Let the Sound of Reading Dissolve in the Fragrance of Rice: Campus Landscape Design of Shenyang Architectural University,” Chinese Landscape Architecture, 2005,(5):12-16; “An Ordinary Landscape for an Extraordinary Place: Landscape Design of East Campus of the Party School of the CPC Central Committee.” Urban Environment Design,2007(1):47-53.

      In 2007, Yu finishes the research example of the national and regional Ecological Security Patterns, focusing on ecological security and ecological infrastructure with water security at the core, and completes his research at two scales, Beijing and nationally, respectively. He calls for Beijing's urban development to follow ecological principles, using the city’s flood safety pattern as its primary ecological infrastructure. Publications: “National scale ecological security pattern,” ACTA ECOLOGICAL SINICA, 2009,29(10):5163-5175; “The function of ecological security as an urban growth framework in Beijing,” ACTA ECOLOGICAL SINICA, 2009,9(3):1180-1204; “Ecological Baseline for Beijing’s Urban Sprawl: Basic Ecosystem Services and Their Security Patterns,” City Planning Review, 2010(2):19-24.

      Yu puts forth the idea of a water adaptive landscape, and suggests that ancient Chinese wisdom be used as inspiration for the creation of sponge cities based on the knowledge and experience of cities in Yellow River flood plain. Publications: “Living with Water: Flood Adaptive Landscapes in the Yellow River Basin of China,” Journal of Landscape Architecture,2008 Autumn:6-17.

      In 2011, the Harbin Qunli Stormwater Park is completed, bringing to a successful conclusion field trials to validate how “green sponges” can help create water-resilient cities. The project, which is featured China’s premier national TV channel, CCTV News, wins an ASLA Annual Excellence Award in 2012. Publications(CCTV 新聞聯播): “A Green Sponge for Rain Water: Qunli National Urban Wetland, Harbin,” Landscape Architecture Frontiers, 2011(20):88-95; “Living with Water: Qunli National Urban Wetland, Harbin,” Architectural Journal, 2012(10):62-69.

      On September 13, 2011, Kongjian Yu submits a proposal to the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development through the Water Special Office for two "new technologies for the development of urban water affairs in China in the next five or ten years," including: (1) New technologies for urban rainwater storage and drainage: Urban Sponge—- Stromwater Park to alleviate urban waterlogging (using Harbin Qunli Wetland Park as an example); (2) Natural ecological treatment system (wetland or slow filter) (using Shanghai Houtan Wetland Park as an example). See: Kongjian Yu, “Stormwater Park for a Water Resilient City: Qunli National Urban Wetland,” TOPOS, 2011(77), 72-77; Kongjian Yu, “Landscape as a Living System: Shanghai 2010 Expo Houtan Park,” in: Matthias Richter and Ulrike Weiland (Eds.), Applied Urban Ecology: A Global Framework, pp.186-192.

      The "National Urban Wetland Resource Protection and Management Site Meeting," organized by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development’s Urban Construction Department, is held in Tieling City from September 24 to September 16, 2012. Yu delivers the keynote remarks, “Green Sponges: An Ecological Pathway for Managing the Urban Water Environment.”

      In 2012, Turenscape pushes for the transformation of Guangzhou into sponge city. Yu gives four major speeches calling for a sponge city in Guangzhou to local officials there. Planning and design for the first sponge city project in Guangzhou — Tianhe Smart City and Daguan Wetland — is officially launched. See: “‘Green sponge’ to solve stormwater problems,” Guangzhou Daily, 2012-08-13.

      Turenscape proposes a strategy for urban "green sponge" planning in conjunction with planning for the southern expansion area of Beijing’s Yizhuang Economic Development Zone. Yu also publishes "Constructing Urban Green Sponge: Research on the Planning of Ecological Stormwater Regulation and Storage System," Urban Development Research, 2012 19(5): 4–8. The research wins the 6th Qian Xuesen Urban Studies Gold Award in 2017.

      The 16th issue of Acta Ecology in 2019 publishes the research results of Kongjian Yu and his team's designed ecosystem work, including: Yu KJ, “Designed Ecologies and Their Performance: An Introduction,” Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2019, 39(16):5909-5910. Yu KJ, Wang C L, Li D H, Yuan H, li W H, Hong M, “The Concept, Methodology and a Case Study in Defining the Ecological Redline for the Hydro-Ecological Space,” Acta Ecologica Sinica,2019,39( 16) : 5911-5921. Wang Zhifang, Cheng Kexin, “Spatial and Temporal Changes of ‘Source-Sink’ Landscape During Stormwater Processes in the North Canal Basin, China,” 2019,39(16):5922-5931. Li Xiang, Di Qing, “The Influence Mechanism of Stormwater Reduction and Water Purification of Urban Riparian Buffer Strips on Different Stormwater and Buffer Strip Conditions,” 2019,39(16):5932-5942. Along with eight other papers.
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      Macro Scale -- General Planning of Sponge Land and Sponge Region

      Large-scale sponge system and regional planning focuses on protecting the key ecological water processes and establishing a balanced relationship between humans and natural water systems. This is done by creating an ecological security pattern that focuses land-protection efforts and building ecological infrastructure with water at its core at the national and regional scales, based on spatial analysis of hydrological processes and the concept of ecology.

      Medium Scale -- Sponge City Control Planning

      Urban development and construction falls under the medium scale of sponge city planning, ranging from several square kilometers to tens of square kilometers. The core issues at this scale are: (1) to continue the spatial pattern of macro ecological infrastructure and sponge system planning, to clearly integrate the "sponge system" into the city and determine its features and boundaries; (2) to clarify the spatial relationship between the "sponge system" and surrounding land use, as a guideline for the regulatory planning of sponge cities; (3) formulate guidelines for protection, development and construction; (4) propose the sponge system planning and design concept and implement the sponge system construction.

      Micro Scale -- Green Sponge System Design and Case

      Facing increasingly serious urban water shortage and stormwater problems, we should not only rely on urban scale planning, but also empower individuals to tackle the problem. Family water ecological infrastructure is the extension of national scale water ecological infrastructure. By using every family unit and community green space, green roof and courtyard to collect rainwater, more than 20% of residential land can become a green sponge and urban flooding will be greatly alleviated.

      2021 Ideal Landscapes and the Deep Meaning of Feng Shui: Patterns of Biological and Cultural Genes

      This is a book about ideal landscapes and Feng Shui, the traditional Chinese approach to seeking harmony with the natural landscape. Using evolutionary and anthropological approaches, Peking University professor Kongjian Yu―who holds a doctorate degree in Design from Harvard―explores the origin, structure, and meanings of Feng-Shui in juxtaposition with the ideal landscape models in Chinese culture. Using illustrative site observations and literature, Yu argues that Feng-Shui landscapes share similar structures with other Chinese ideal landscapes―the implications of which are deconstructed into terms of geography, anthropology, ecology, and philosophy. As a landscape architect and urbanist, Professor Yu respects the role of Feng-Shui in the making of places, yet still is in opposition to its superstitious nature. Well illustrated and poetically written, this book is a must-read for those who are interested in Feng-Shui, as well as for those who care about their daily living environment in general―especially those who practice architecture, landscape architecture, and urbanism.

      2021 Building and Restoring a Healthy Aquatic Ecosystem

      Cities are suffering from more floods than ever, causing huge loss of life and property. The reason is that modern cities often lack resilience to the uncertainty of natural disasters. Aquatic ecosystems on the whole are unhealthy. As global climate change intensifies, aquatic ecosystems are facing more severe challenges. The author explains the necessity to cope with water-related issues holistically, and contends that aquatic ecosystems should be evaluated, protected, and restored based on the understanding of ecosystem services they provide. The water security patterns at macro, medium, and micro levels help improve the resilience of aquatic ecosystems, restore the aquatic and hydrophytic habitats, reconstruct the harmony and symbiosis between water systems and humans, and nourish the health and prosperity of ecological civilization.

      2021 Structural Characteristics and Contemporary Value of Traditional Water Cultural Landscapes in Huizhou Region

      Water culture is one of the key issues in Water Ecological Civilization. China’s traditional water cultural landscape embodies rich water cultures, and have a significance in related research and protection practice. This paper proposes the concept of “water cultural landscape,” that is, the landscape formed through humans’ environmental alteration during water activities—including how people use, transform, and manage it. The traditional water cultural landscapes in Huizhou Region have developed over hundreds of years, reflecting the locals’ wisdom in sustainable water use. The water cultural landscape in Huizhou Region should be interpreted as a systematic notion, in which all landscape elements such as ponds, weirs, and drains are interdependent, composing the landscape components e.g. valleys, hills, and basins, and establishing water security patterns for cities, towns, villages, and for production. The traditional water cultural landscape in Huizhou Region requires local generations’ long-term maintenance and management, and in turn it is also vital to Huizhou people's life and Huizhou culture. Today, it acts as an ecological infrastructure for sponge countryside and sponge city construction, and an important resource for heritage protection and tourism development.

      2021 Exploration of the Ecological Restoration Model for the Improvement of Ecosystem Services of Yellow River Floodplains — A Case Study of Zhengzhou Yellow River Floodplain Park Planning and Design

      The Yellow River Basin is one of the greatest and most important ecological barriers and economic belts in China. When the Yellow River Basin is seen as an ecosystem in whole, the floodplains in the lower reaches are critical to the basin’s health and biodiversity. However, due to the extreme complexity of the natural environment of the floodplains, current flood control policies, long-term agricultural activities, and extensive rural construction and production, the river ecosystem has suffered from considerable damage and a serious decline of ecosystem services. In the planning and design project of the Zhengzhou Yellow River Floodplain Park, the characteristics of the lower, intermediate, and higher floodplains have been carefully identified, and site-specific ecological restoration measures for each floodplain type were implemented, highlighting the authenticity and natural qualities and improving the overall ecosystem services. In addition, a slow traffic system and innovative industries along the Yellow River were introduced to enable high-quality cultural perception and recreational experience of the improved ecosystem services, promote green production and lifestyle. These measures help make the Yellow River a river that truly benefits the locals. In the context of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River, as a national agenda, the ecological restoration planning strategies proposed in this article provide a reference for the development of ecological management and green economy in other sections of the lower reaches of the Yellow River.

      2021 Wangshan Life: A Nature-Based Rural Revitalization Model

      In the report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, General Secretary Xi Jinping noted that the issues facing agriculture, rural communities, and farmers are fundamental issues relating to the national economy and people's means of subsistence, and that we must always make resolving the "three rural" issues the top priority of the work of the entire party and carry out rural revitalization. The "Strategic Plan for Rural Revitalization (2018-2022)" was released in September 2018 by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council, along with a notice ordering all regions and departments to diligently implement it in light of their current circumstances. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the Ministry of Natural Resources of my nation jointly held a press conference in Beijing on June 23, 2021, where they unveiled the "IUCN Global Standards for Nature-Based Solutions" (Chinese version) and the "Nature-Based Solutions China: Practical Cases."

      2021 Brownfield Regeneration:2020 Fourth Hebei (Handan) Garden Expo's Design Practice and Technical Application

      Handan Garden Expo Park is in Fuxing District, Handan City. The Qin River, the mother river of Handan, originates here and flows into Handan City. Later, it turned into an industrial wasteland with foul water and refuse due to urban growth and industrial development. Turenscape employs modern technology, contemporary design, and contemporary language with the design concept "Shanshui Handan, Green Revival" to strive to restore the ecological base, restructure the green environment, practice the "sponge city," and "urban double repair." The proportion of blue-green space in the Fuxing District might theoretically increase significantly as it transitions from a "industrial pollution region" to a "green ecological area." The layout of the urban space is optimized, and the design not only satisfies the requirements of the 4th Garden Expo in Hebei Province but also fills in the functional gaps left by Handan City's lack of a sizable public green space. It also serves as a new development engine for the city with a thriving ecology and a variety of business opportunities. The "Park" will guide the "City" to create new chances for the business, trade, and tourism growth of Fuxing District and Handan City, driven by the "Garden Expo Effect." The Handan Garden Expo project's overall design is a successful example of urban ecological restoration, and it is the first garden expo project in China to fully integrate contemporary garden design techniques. Turenscape in this book provides a thorough overview of regenerative design, summarizing planning, architectural, and landscape practices in order to set an example for the technical promotion of projects of a similar nature in the future.

      2020 The Land of Peach Blossoms and the Art of Survival: My Journey to Heal the Planet

      On October 8, the 2020 Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe Award of the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) was awarded to Yu Kongjian, professor of School of Architecture and Landscape of Peking University. This highest honor for landscape architects and scholars recognizes an individual’s outstanding lifelong achievements. This article is a record of his acceptance speech, which summarized his academic and professional careers. Looking back, Yu held that his village landscape experiences, melded with modern concepts of landscape and urbanism, sustainability and aesthetics, enables him to deal with the common challenges faced by the landscape architecture profession today. At the moment, the global COVID-19 pandemic is a powerful reminder that this is an incredibly sobering time to contemplate the relationship between humans and the nature. He also believes that the pandemic—together with other crises such as climate change—is highlighting the importance of landscape architecture that can not only heal bodies and minds, but also the planet itself.

      2020 The Conflict between Two Civilizations: On Nature-based Solutions

      Conflicts, upon the author’s four experiences, exist between the methods, technologies, and world views of ecological and industrial civilizations. The movement against the channelization of the Shuangyuan Stream in Dali City, Yunnan Province failed to rescue the loss of natural assets that have accumulated for tens of thousands of years. Due to the indifference to protests by environmentalists and scholars, Beijing’s river channelization projects resulted in severe damage to the city’s ecological resilience. A similar conflict occurred over the anti-seepage project of Yuanmingyuan Park in Beijing, which marked a beginning of China’s turn toward “nature-based solutions.” Moreover, a severe storm hit Beijing on July 21, 2012, spurring municipal managers to reflect on urban drainage system design, and promoted the spread of “Green Sponge,” a nature-based solution, to the problem of urban waterlogging nationwide. Only by undertaking the difficult journey to utilize nature-based solutions can China tackle ecological and environmental problems caused by urbanization and industrialization, and contribute to the world. Natural forces, instead of the engineering approaches praised by industrial civilization, may help improve urban resilience in their ingenuity addressing environmental crises and for a greater social advance.

      2020 Work with and by Nature: The Essence of Territorial Spatial Planning and Ecological Restoration

      Through his recent visits to three cities facing severe and challenging living conditions, the author gained deeper insight into the symbiosis between humans and nature. In Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, urban construction practices against floods and for water supply encroach on natural ecological infrastructure, resulting in the exhaustion of local water resource, ground subsidence, and the destruction of the indigenous cultural landscape of floating gardens. In Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, where water bodies are heavily polluted, scarce urban parks become the only refuge for citizens. Finally in Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, estuary gates built to block floods invade the once prosperous canals, accelerating the decline of floating communities and markets and exacerbating traffic congestion and air pollution. Learning from these cases, cities must become better at spatial planning and have the foresight to preserve and improve existing ecosystems while they develop and grow. Essentially, spatial planning and ecological restoration means working with nature in a way that can provide generous ecosystem services for humans, and, eventually, increase people’s well-being and enhance cities’ development of sustainability.

      2020 Investigation into how urbanization affects Pitang's ability to regulate its hydrology

      Rapid urbanization has resulted in a major decrease in the quantity and area of minor water bodies like Pitang, which has had a negative impact on the ability of the region to regulate its hydrology. This paper examines the surface runoff, irrigated crops, and irrigated crops in Pitang before and after urbanization in various hydrologic years using the Xiaojiahe and Houhe watersheds in Liangjiang New Area of Chongqing as examples. Based on 2000 and 2012 land use data and using the quantitative simulation calculation method, the ability to reduce peak runoff has changed. The study demonstrates that wetland losses in Pitang following urbanization significantly reduced the study area's ability to withstand flooding and drought. The significant decrease in Pitang's capacity to handle droughts and floods is primarily seen in three areas: the water supply for crops in dry years decreased by nearly 10%; the capacity to regulate and store annual rainfall in normal, wet, and wet years decreased by about 10%; and the capacity to reduce flood peak for a single heavy rainstorm is decreased by almost 25%.

      2019 Designing and Building a Beautiful City with the Vision of Ecological Civilization

      The people's desire for a better life is the goal we strive to realize. However, due to the limitations of the times, the values and aesthetic concepts of city decision-makers, planners and builders, cities are often full of ugliness and diseases, which are concentrated in the unbalanced relationship between cities and nature, despite the fact that we strive to create more livable cities. Therefore, under the concept of ecological civilization, preserving natural ecosystem services is the key to striking a balanced relationship between human and nature. A more balanced existence can be realized in the following four ways: First, by creating a balanced spatial pattern between the city and nature with a planning method that prioritizes ecology; Secondly, by employing ecosystem services-oriented design to improve the ecological infrastructure, and using nature-based solutions to restore and rebuild the damaged ecosystems; Third, using urban design to repair urban form and to improve urban functionality; Fourth, by promoting a circular economy, practicing green production and lifestyle, and reducing the environmental impacts caused by human activities. In conclusion, these are the key points of philosophy, science and art of urban planning and design under the concept of ecological civilization.

      2019 Large scale ecological restoration: Empowering the nature-based solutions inspired by the ancient wisdom of farming

      With the centuries of experience, Chinese farmers have accumulated a substantial body of ecological wisdom about transforming the surface of the earth and turning it into a sustainable landscape, which was both productive and ecologically healthy. These ecological design methods were generally nature-based and inexpensive. This article discusses the rediscovery of nature-based solutions inspired by the Chinese ancient wisdom of farming and their application in transforming the ecological landscape at a large scale. Accordingly inspired by the ancient ecological wisdom, and based on years of research, experiments and practices, the author was experienced and competent to develop a series of modules of strengthened nature-based solutions, including practical approaches such as ancient ecological wisdom, modules extract, strengthened design, performance testing (POE), model technology and ecological restoration engineering, and implement them at large scale in over 200 cities across China and beyond.

      2019 Designed ecologies and their performance: An introduction

      Facing the challenging tasks of large scale ecological rehabilitation,restoration,and even full-scale revival,designed ecology is taking its turn on the stage. Three kinds of intellectual assets of mankind are the resources that inspire the practice of designed ecologies: knowledge of ecological sciences,ancient wisdom accumulated through cultural adaptation to the changing environment,and arts that advance humanity,which make designed ecologies to be nature-based,ecosystem service-oriented,and integrated with arts and sciences. The performance studies published here on several representative designed ecologies undertaken by Turenscape over the past two decades demonstrate a promising future for the approach in addressing pressing urban and rural ecological issues. Designed ecology has been proven,and continues to be proven, as a promising yet challenging new discipline that is flourishing with the development of eco-civilization.

      2019 The concept,methodology and a case study in defining ecological redlines for the hydro-ecological space

      China faces multiple interconnected water problems, including flooding,drought,water pollution,aquatic habitat loss and an increasingly fractured human-water relationship. The solution to these problems should go beyond the singleminded engineering approach and be sought from bringing together integrative hydro-ecosystem services through systematic protection and restoration of ecosystem health and integrity. In such context,defining a relatively complete hydro-ecosystem boundary,as a bottom line for safeguarding its security and health,would lay an essential foundation for solving water issues ecologically,and also has strategic implication for current nation-wide buildup of Sponge City and Sponge National Landscape in the future. This article for the first time raises the concept of the “Hydro-Ecological Red Line.” The article also proposed a methodology for defining red lines that is derived from hydro-ecological security pattern,specifies its technical procedure of “Hydro-ecological problem analysis-hydro-ecological process modelling and assessment-hydro-ecological security level classification-hydro-ecological security pattern identification-hydro-ecological red line drawing”,and develops four red line types (for securing water supply,sustaining hydrological regulation function,supporting aquatic wildlife and conserving water cultural services,respectively).An integrative hydro-ecological red line was then formed,represented as a spatial pattern composed of landscape elements including patches,lines and areas as well as their spatial relationships that are critical in supporting hydro-ecological process. Taking Yanqi Lake as an example,an empirical study was carried out.

      2019 City and Natural Ecology

      These books focus on human and nature, indicator systems, support systems, regional integration, urban-rural relationships, planning systems, housing security, urban form and community construction. They use the general theory of "Basic Laws of Urban and Rural Development and Basic Principles of Green Development" as their foundation. The purpose of the theme is to make green development theory more well-known among Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development management. This book concentrates on the notion of green development, the importance, and the fundamental prerequisites of the balanced development of cities and nature. It also focuses on the balanced growth of human and nature. People are the key to encouraging "urban and rural construction oriented to green growth." In order to better understand the original intention and mission of promoting "urban and rural construction committed to green development," experts were organized to compile this set of "Committed to Green Development" in order to assist the staff of party committees, governments at all levels, and relevant departments of urban and rural construction in studying and understanding Xi Jinping's ecological civilization thought in depth. And it is the materials for classroom instruction on the topic of "Urban and Rural Construction for Green Development." This collection of textbooks explains the ideas, strategies, and approaches for boosting green growth in many fields by topic, with a concentration on 12 key areas of urban and rural building. It elaborates on and advances the promotion from two dimensions, theory and practice, with a professional viewpoint, a strict attitude, and scientific methodologies. "Urban and rural construction committed to green development": how to look, think and practice.

      2018 The Logic of "Lucid Waters and Lush Mountains are Invaluable Assets"

      It's possible that Bamei, Yunnan, experienced China's final "The Land of Peach Blossoms." (a kind of legendary land like paradise in Chinese). In this region, which is surrounded by mountains and only accessible by boat and has fertile crops and lovely ponds, residents have comfortable lives. However, when I went there, everything had completely changed. The cause may be due to the demands for growth made by the local population or because developers or engineering firms are motivated by financial concerns. However, as a result of this change, both its worth and the alleged "economic benefits" will vanish. People's quest for financial gain is not bad in any way. The problem is that those who make decisions do not comprehend ecology and aesthetics, which are the foundation of economic gains.

      2018 Ten Lectures on Sponge City

      The book argues that China's modern urban planning must promote a "big foot" image, meaning free nature and let nature function as it should, which involves two crucial tactics: The first step is to employ "reverse planning" to release and restore nature's large feet, alter the way urban growth and construction are now planned, create an ecological infrastructure, offer ecosystem services, and alter the original mechanical way of thinking. Second, we must promote a brand-new aesthetic based on ecology and environmental ethics called Bigfoot Aesthetics. This new era of beauty recognizes the beauty of nature and promotes the beauty of wild grass, healthy ecological processes and patterns, and high yields. It also acknowledges that Bigfoot beauty is environmentally friendly. According to Kongjian Yu, the current moment requires the creation of an ecological civilization with Chinese characteristics since it will benefit both the present and future generations. The "sponge city" has addressed global issues while showcasing an ecological strategy with Chinese elements.

      2017 Sponge City Landscape Engineering Atlas

      This atlas incorporates Turenscape's nearly 20 years of technological research into "sponge city" landscape design. Finally, the senior engineer has finished his review. It is mostly utilized by professionals in the landscape engineering design field. It is appropriate for preliminary landscape design, construction sketch design, and a number of highly reference-worthy engineering techniques. Real images of genuine completed project cases are included to the precise engineering drawings so that the relevant designers can fully comprehend both the drawings and the impacts of the finished project.

      2017 Constructed Wetlands and Sustainable Development

      This book explains how with careful planning and design, the functions and performance of constructed wetlands can provide a huge range of benefits to humans and the environment. It documents the current designs and specifications for free water surface wetlands, horizontal and vertical subsurface flow wetlands, hybrid wetlands and bio retention basins; and explores how to plan, engineer, design and monitor these natural systems. Sections address resource management (landscape planning), technical issues (environmental engineering and botany), recreation and physical design (landscape architecture), and biological systems (ecology). Site and municipal scale strategies for flood management, storm-water treatment and green infrastructure are illustrated with case studies from the USA, Europe and China, which show how these principles have been put into practice. Written for upper level students and practitioners, this highly illustrated book provides designers with the tools they need to ensure constructed wetlands are sustainably created and well managed.

      2016 Ecology-Based Water Management: "Sponge Cities" and "Sponge Landscapes”

      The widely discussed "sponge city" in contemporary China is more than a vivid description of a kind of eco-city, it is a philosophy, methodology and system of techniques of ecology-based water management. The "sponge city" is an approach to urban development based on ecological infrastructure. Such ecological infrastructure differs from the conventional lifeless and single target-oriented infrastructure of water management in that the ecological infrastructure is based on ecological principles, and planned and designed through the approaches of landscape architecture, and is aimed at enhancing multiple ecosystem services so that the problems associated with water will be resolved holistically and symbiotically, including ecological flood control, water purification, groundwater recharge, ecological restoration, biodiversity conservation, climate adjustment and the improvement of the living environment.
      Sponge city is the water management approach imbedded with Chinese traditional philosophy and inspired with Chinese traditional wisdom and integrated with contemporary ecology based on water management and environmental restoration approaches in the world. Sponge city should be understood under the nationwide crisis of water issues including the declining water resources, the serious water pollution and the degraded hydrological ecosystems, and should be understood under the background of the national "Beautiful China" campaign. Sponge city is, therefore, a synonym for "sponge land" of the nation.

      2016 Sponge City - Theory and Practice (2 vols.)

      This book is the result of nearly 20 years of study and application by Kongjian Yu and his group. By establishing ecological infrastructure, a green sponge system, he proposed a method for comprehensively and methodically resolving urban water and other ecological and environmental issues. He also suggested that the goal of sponge city construction should be to ensure and enhance ecosystem services.

      2015 Three Key Strategies to Creating a Sponge City :Retention, Attenuation and Adaptation

      This article articulates three key strategies in achieving water-resilient cities, or sponge cities: retention, attenuation and adaptation. Three projects are illustrated to demonstrate these strategies: the Qunli Storm Water Park in Harbin City, Liupanshui Minghu Wetland Park in Liupanshui City and Yanweizhou park in Jinhua City. These three strategies shall be integrated in dealing with floods and stormwater to form a systematic solution, namely: "retention to absorb the water at the source, attenuation to reduce the destructive forces of water during the flow, and adaptation to ultimately be resilient in the face of floods.”

      2015 "Sponge City": Theory and Practice

      China is facing a variety of water problems such as water shortage, water pollution, flooding and aquatic habitat degradation, which are intertwined components of a greater and more complex issue demanding for an equally integrative and comprehensive solution that needs seamless coordination among different authorities. The theory of the “Sponge City” was developed in response to China’s water challenges. Developed on the basis of the theory of eco-system service and landscape security pattern, and with the cases of Beijing, Liupanshui and Qunli National Wetland Park in Harbin as examples, this paper explicates the origin, development, content and methodologies of the “Sponge City” concept. The paper also points out that in contrast to the traditional engineering-oriented approach, with its focus on “gray” infrastructure, the “sponge city”, as an ecological approach, is built upon multi-scale hydroecological infrastructure to provide an integrated solution to the prominent water problems in urban and rural areas of China.

      2015 The "Sponge" Philosophy

      The "sponge" idea is to slow down the flow of water, make it tranquil, so that it is no longer wild and destructive; to give it an opportunity to permeate and nourish life; to allow it time to purify itself; and to give it a chance to serve humanity. Modern flood control has abandoned the core of Chinese traditional philosophy, which calls for overcoming stiffness with flexibility, and instead promotes the confrontational philosophy of "defend to the death." The floods won't be far away if people try to withstand them with seemingly unbreakable lines of defense, according to thousands of years of experience in flood control and resistance. The suppleness of the "sponge concept" transforms conflict into peaceful coexistence. The utmost wisdom in water management, if we subscribe to the notion that "the wise man is happy with water," is to replace unyielding rigidity with flexibility.

      2014 Liupanshui Suggestions

      Improving education about national water conditions and water culture, spreading accurate new knowledge and new concepts of water safety, water resources, water environment, water ecology, and water utilization, and promoting the full value of water and the essence of life are all part of the creation of a water ecological civilization. This comprehensive view of water promotes water recycling, conservation, and responsible water usage. Implement the central government's proposal for "improvement of the most stringent water resources management system," place a high value on water issues in the context of food and land security, work to restore the ecology of the water system, and establish a scientific system for comprehensive management of water resources and water systems. A national ecological security pattern is established, and it is then advocated that national land development and urban construction be based on the ecological security pattern, using water as the primary medium of the ecosystem and the nation's strategic resource. River and lake water systems are also considered to be the primary element, skeleton of the national ecological security,and anti-planner attitude. Promote the idea of ecological water regulation, with the main goals being the establishment of "sponge" systems at a variety of scales, including the national territory, the region, and urban and rural areas.

      2013 Landscape as Ecological Infrastructure

      We build highways so that cars can move faster. We control the entrances and exits along these roads and construct medias at the center to ensure that the highways — the backbones of infrastructure — are continuous and unobstructed. We are unaware however, that such actions have damaged another transportation network that was denser and more efficient, a transport means that is safer and greener: the pedestrian and bicycle system. Please do not get me wrong. I am not advocating removal of cars, nor am I denying the technology that supports modern human civilizations. I am calling for a new type of infrastructure that is wiser, more sophisticated, and able to systematically integrate natural and human processes. I am calling for an ecological infrastructure that takes landscape as the infrastructure to systematically address the diseases of contemporary cities, to address regional and local flooding, drought and water shortage, water and soil pollution, alienation from nature, dullness of environmental experience, and lack of cultural identity. An ecologicalized infrastructure will bring us a new picture of cities: a poetic, picturesque, and resilient place that is fertile and resource-efficient, based on natural systems, rich in delicate human creations, and free of the turmoil of the world. This new type of infrastructure would bring us a new, low-carbon, healthful, and ecological life. Such infrastructure will help us in creating new cultures and guide us towards a new civilization — an ecological civilization.

      2012 Let rain and flood not be a disaster, but become a gospel

      Promote the idea of ecological water regulation, with the main goals being the establishment of "sponge" systems on a variety of sizes, including the national territory, the region, and urban and rural areas. In addition, most cities exploit their access to rivers, lakes, and ponds to serve as storage and regulating facilities for excess water. Building the city in the center of the water or leaving the water in and around the city were two of the ancient Chinese towns' wise adaptations to waterlogging. However, at the moment, these parks and natural water systems don't do a good job of storing rainwater or preventing floods; instead, they frequently burden the city. One explanation is that they are governed by various departments, each of which has its own objectives and interests.

      2012 Kongjian Yu: Let the rain come back to life

      When I was a child, the rain would fall to the ground, moisten the grass and trees on the ground, and then disappear into the fields of crops or the grass on the side of the road. After a period of nonstop rain, the river and the grassy beaches by the highway started to soak up the water like sponges and gently discharge it into the pond. I therefore make the request: Resurrect the rain of that day! A grassy beach that can return to the land, a greenway that can flow to rivers and lakes, a depression that can be trapped and purified, and that Wetlands, big and small, accept her kindness and tenderness that nourishes all things. Stop tying up the soft rainwater with steel pipes and cement. Let her see the sunshine and shade again.

      2012 Symbiosis of Architecture and Flooding: Harbin Qunli Stormwater Park

      In addition to traditional municipal engineering, one effective method for managing urban rainwater and flooding is to use the environment to collect and cleanse rainwater and act as a sponge. This strategy, which integrates large-scale stormwater landscape management with the preservation of urban and rural habitats, groundwater recharge, and resident relaxation, is demonstrated by Harbin Qunli Stormwater Park, which recently won the 2012 American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) Outstanding Design Award. The problem of urban rain and flooding has been thoroughly and sensibly solved by a variety of functions, such as aesthetic experience and aesthetic experience.

      2009 National Scale Ecological Security Pattern

      China, with its huge population and relative meager natural resources, fragile ecosystems, plus the unprecedented urbanization and economic growth in terms of speed and scale, is facing sever challenges of sustainability and survival. Addressing these challenges requires that the national land should be planned and used wisely. This research is a pilot project aiming at establishing ecological security patterns at the national scale that will protect the most sensitive ecological landscapes and critical pattern as a strategy for wise conservation and wise development. Critical natural processes are analyzed systematically at the national scale, including headwater conservation, soil erosion prevention, storm water management and flood control, desertification combating and biodiversity conservation. Individual security patterns for safeguarding each of these natural processes are identified and then integrated into an overall ecological security pattern. Three levels of National Ecological Security Pattern are defined, the lower security level, the moderate security level and the higher security level, which account for 35.7% , 65.1% and 84.9% of the national land respectively. This study is expected to p rovide a scientific basis for the undergoing national function zoning and land use planning at the national scale.

      2007 The Flood and Waterlog Adaptive Landscapes in Ancent Chinese Cities in the Yellow River Basin

      Based on the study of several ancient cities in the Yellow River flood-plain, this paper discussed the disastrous experiences of flooding and waterlogging and three major adaptive landscape strategies: siting on high ground, constructing city walls and protective dikes, and reserving or digging ponds within cities. It argues that all these traditional experiences and landscape heritages help us to understand the vernacular cultural landscape of cities in the Yellow River floodplain, and have important values to landscape and urban planning and design in this region.

      2005 On “Negative Planning”

      The rapid urbanization process in China challenges conventional planning methodology. Traditional urban planning model of “population speculation-land use,” which was evolved during the planned economy in the past decades has been proven again and again invalid in dealing with the current urban development issues, and is likely responsible for the degrading ecological conditions across the nation, and the chaos of the form and function of cities in China. The authors therefore proposed a “negative approach” to urban planning, and especially the physical planning of the city. The negative approach gives priority to identifying and planning of ecological infrastructure-the integrated security patterns that are critical in safeguarding the natural, biological and cultural processes across landscapes.

      2001 Ten landscape strategies to build urban ecological infrastructure

      Urban ecological infrastructure plays a fundamental role for sustainable ecological services. Rapid urbanization in China calls for a far-sighted approach to ecological infrastructure construction. This paper proposes the following ten landscape strategies: preserve and strengthen the overall natural landscape; protect and restore diverse native habitats; preserve and restore natural forms of rivers and seashores; protect and restore wetland system; integrate suburban greenbelts into urban green space systems; establish auto-free greenways; open up dedicated green space.


      Upward

      2021 Ideal Landscapes and the Deep Meaning of Feng Shui: Patterns of Biological and Cultural Genes

      2021 Building and Restoring a Healthy Aquatic Ecosystem

      2021 Structural Characteristics and Contemporary Value of Traditional Water Cultural Landscapes in Huizhou Region

      2021 Exploration of the Ecological Restoration Model for the Improvement of Ecosystem Services of Yellow River Floodplains — A Case Study of Zhengzhou Yellow River Floodplain Park Planning and Design

      2021 Wangshan Life: A Nature-Based Rural Revitalization Model

      2021 Brownfield Regeneration:2020 Fourth Hebei (Handan) Garden Expo's Design Practice and Technical Application

      2020 The Land of Peach Blossoms and the Art of Survival: My Journey to Heal the Planet

      2020 The Conflict between Two Civilizations: On Nature-based Solutions

      2020 Work with and by Nature: The Essence of Territorial Spatial Planning and Ecological Restoration

      2020 Investigation into how urbanization affects Pitang's ability to regulate its hydrology

      2019 Designing and Building a Beautiful City with the Vision of Ecological Civilization

      2019 Large scale ecological restoration: Empowering the nature-based solutions inspired by the ancient wisdom of farming

      2019 Designed ecologies and their performance: An introduction

      2019 The concept,methodology and a case study in defining ecological redlines for the hydro-ecological space

      2019 City and Natural Ecology

      2018 The Logic of "Lucid Waters and Lush Mountains are Invaluable Assets"

      2018 Ten Lectures on Sponge City

      2017 Sponge City Landscape Engineering Atlas

      2017 Constructed Wetlands and Sustainable Development

      2016 Ecology-Based Water Management: "Sponge Cities" and "Sponge Landscapes”

      2016 Sponge City - Theory and Practice (2 vols.)

      2015 Three Key Strategies to Creating a Sponge City :Retention, Attenuation and Adaptation

      2015 "Sponge City": Theory and Practice

      2015 The "Sponge" Philosophy

      2014 Liupanshui Suggestions

      2013 Landscape as Ecological Infrastructure

      2012 Let rain and flood not be a disaster, but become a gospel

      2012 Kongjian Yu: Let the rain come back to life

      2012 Symbiosis of Architecture and Flooding: Harbin Qunli Stormwater Park

      2009 National Scale Ecological Security Pattern

      2007 The Flood and Waterlog Adaptive Landscapes in Ancent Chinese Cities in the Yellow River Basin

      2005 On "Negative-planning"

      2001 Ten landscape strategies to build urban ecological infrastructure

      Upward
      Upward

      Heavy rains often cause what’s known in Chinese as “seeing the waves”—catastrophic flooding. Is there any way to solve the problem? How can we return our cities to health and beauty? Kongjian Yu, put forward two strategies of "turning bound little feet back to natural big feet" and "turning big feet into beautiful big feet through design". He proposed making friends with water and returning land to production. Over the past 20 years, Kongjian Yu and his team have completed a series of replicable engineering examples rooted in the sponge city concept.

      Haikou Lecture | "Sponge" Class

      Phoenix lecture | Kongjian Yu talks about sponge city and ecological water control (Part 1) (Part 2)

      CCTV9 Documentary Channel | Sponge City: Live with Nature and City [Ⅰ] [Ⅱ]

      Reuters Impact | Healing the world's cities: Nature Based Solution

      2021 Frontiers Forum | Healing the World's Cities

      The Claremont Eco Forum

      Dialogue with The World Pacific Future Forum 2020

      Columbia University Lecture: Deep Form

      Discovery "Smart China" | Smart Planet

      Yixi | Big Foot Revolution

      CCTV News 《News Investigation》 | Kongjian Yu 's Interview with "The Breathing River"

      Turenscape | Sponge City is Coming

      Big Foot Revolution - Implementing the Idea of Ecological Civilization

      Slow City is a Beautiful Chinese Dream

      Phoenix – Homesickness

      French Documentary – Incredible Garden

      Dialogue with Hebei Handan Garden Expo Park

      Beijing TV: Home for 40 Years Dialogue with Zhongguancun

      No Time to Waste Landscape Architecture and the Global Challenge of Climate Change

      Ecological infrastructure and nature-based solutions

      Design with nature

      Will China and the US put aside rivalries to tackle climate change

      Landscape Architect's Approach to Tackling Climate Change

      Shanxi TV 《Transforming》: Let the City Breathe Like a Sponge

      John Cobb Common Good Award

      Dream Builder

      Thailand Nature Based Solutions for resilient Cities

      Berkeley International Architecture Forum

      Venice Biennale Resilient landscape for resilient communities

      Royal Institute of British Architects: Sponge City

      Mashable:In a race against extreme floods, some cities look to nature

      Asahi Shimbun: China Sponge City Concept

      Bioneers:Visionary, Nature-Based Urban Design from China

      BBC: Sponge cities that fight flooding

      How to Protect & Supply Megacities Through Nature

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